About : < /span> Azerbaijan's national independence movement and the first not only in Turkic lands, but in the entire Islamic world Muhammad Amin Akhund Haji Molla Alakbar oglu Rasulzadeh, the immortal leader of our people, who laid the foundation stone of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic with a republican system of administration, and whose life later turned into an epic full of rich and turbulent events, was born on January 31, 1884 in the village of Novkhani, Baku. . Although his father was a cleric, he looked at life with open eyes and directed his school-age son to study worldly sciences rather than Sharia lessons. The fact that he sent his son to the second "Russian-Muslim" school headed by the famous educator S.M. Ganizadeh (1846-1942) played a big role in the fate of the future thinker. After graduating from this school, M.A. Rasulzadeh continued his education in Baku technical school, in Russian. The first years of his revolutionary activity coincide with this period. In 1902, seventeen-year-old M.A. Rasulzade created the "Muslim youth organization" ("Azerbaijan Turkish cultural magazine", Ankara No. 269, 1989, p. 49). It was the first political organization that secretly fought against the Russian colonial rule in Azerbaijan in the 20th century.
A little later, this organization, operating secretly under the name of "Muslim democratic "Musavat" society" a branch of the organization was established in Iran and became the guiding force of the mashrut revolution that started there. M.A. Rasulzade also started his literary work in these years, and was published in the first "Shargi Rus" newspaper (No. 20 of 1903) called "Mukhammas". At the end of 1904, on the basis of the "Muslim democratic "Musavat" society", the "Muslim social-democratic "Hummat" organization" was established under the Baku committee of the RSDFP. The founders of this organization were Mir Hasan Movsumov (1882-1907), Mammad Hasan Hajinsky (1875-1931) and Muhammad Amin Rasulzade. ("Bakinski rabochi" newspaper, No. 60, March 18, 1923). M. Azizbeyov, N. Narimanov, S. M. Efendiyev and other prominent revolutionaries were also members of this organization since 1905. The newspaper "Hummat" of the organization was also published (1904-1905, 6 numbers in total), M.A. Rasulzadeh was one of the main publishers of the newspaper. However, his number has not been found yet.
After that, the newspaper ceases its publication, It has been published since December 1906 under the name "Takamul". In those years, the sending of revolutionary newspapers and renaissances in the native language in the oil fields of Baku and in the districts of Azerbaijan is directly related to the name of M.A. Rasulzade. On September 29, 1907, on the day of the funeral of the revolutionary worker Khanlar Safaraliyev in Bibi-Heybet, M.A. Rasulzade gave a fiery speech together with P. Caparidze, S. M. Efendiyev, and I. V. Stalin at the big meeting held at his grave. It should also be noted that M.A. Rasulzade was a very sincere and close friend of I.Stalin, who carried out revolutionary activities in Baku from the beginning of our century until the end of 1907. As early as 1905, the rich in the oil fields of Balakhan wanted to throw Stalin into the oil well because he invited the workers to strike. MA Rasulzade, who reached the scene, saved Stalin from death. He was also the organizer of the secret kidnapping of Stalin from Bayil prison. In 1954, "Dunya" newspaper, published in Istanbul, published M.A. Rasulzade's memorial-article entitled "Revolution with Stalin". He talks about it in the same article. ("Dunya" newspaper, May 23, 1954). In that period, M.A. Rasulzade's articles and poems on various topics were published in the newspapers "Fyuzat" edited by Alibey Huseynzade (1864-1941), and "Irshad" and "Taraqqi" edited by Ahmadbey Aghayev (1869-1939). For some time he was the temporary editor of "Irshad" newspaper. M.A. Rasulzadeh was the publisher of the book "Turkish-Russian and Russian-Turkish Dictionary" by Uzeyir Hajibeyov (1885-1948), a great composer of the future, published in 1907. Again, in the same year, he translated A. Blum's book "What kind of freedom does the working class need (about people's representation)" into the Azerbaijani language and had it printed in the Orujov brothers' printing house on behalf of the editors of "Takamul" newspaper. Russia of the Bolsheviks in those timesM.A. Rasulzade, who felt that they were fighting only for the sake of maintaining the borders of his empire and eliminating class contradictions, left the ranks of the RSDFP. He began to build the cornerstone of the Azerbaijani national independence movement against the Russian colonial rule. On December 5, 1908, Mohammad Amin's play "Lights in the Dark" was staged. The main line of the play was the promotion of the national awakening and independence movement. With this work of his, he began to spread the idea of the slogan "autonomy for Azerbaijan" and called to overthrow the tyranny of Russian tsarism. This play of his is the first drama completely related to the national independence movement in Azerbaijan. Apart from this work, there is also a play called "Sudden Trouble" written by M.A. Rasulzade in the same year. At the end of 1908, M.A. Rasulzade left Baku and went to Iran due to the threat of his arrest by the tsarist administration. He became one of the main leaders of the mashruta revolution against the monarchy in Iran. M.A. Rasulzade meets the national hero of our nation Sattarkhan and his comrades in arms in Tabriz. He travels around the cities and villages of South Azerbaijan and closely observes the plight of his native people. These observations did not remain unaffected in M.A. Rasulzade's literary work. Mammad Amin Rasulzade founded the Iranian Democratic Party in September 1910 together with a group of European-educated Iranian intellectuals (Seyd Hasan Taghizadeh, Huseyngulu Khan Navvab, Suleyman Mirza, Seyyed Mohammad Reza, etc.). He became the editor-in-chief of "Irane Nou" and "Irane Ahat" newspapers, which are the main organ of this pariah. Many articles, poems and publicist writings of M.A. Rasulzadeh were published in those newspapers. With his pen, he laid the foundation of European-style journalistic art in Iran. Later, Seyid Hasan Taghizadeh (1878-1969) wrote in his obituary dedicated to M.A. Rasulzadeh's memory: "M.A. Rasulzadeh was the first to bring the modern European newspaper form to Iran" ("Suhan" magazine, Tehran, 1955, No. 4). In the same year, the reactionary party "Etidaliyyun" ("Moderates") was organized in Iran. In connection with this, M.A. Rasulzadeh published his book "Tangidi-firgeyi-etidaliyyun" in Persian in 1910 in Tehran. In 1911, the author's Persian book "Saadati-Bashar" was published in Ardabil. fearing the revolutionary movement in Iran, the tsarist government demanded the expulsion of M.A. Rasulzadeh, one of its main leaders, from the royal administration. M.A. Rasulzade appeals to Istanbul to get rid of persecution. He met his compatriots Alibey Huseynzade and Ahmedbey Agayev in the capital of Turkey, and was close to Yusifbey Aghchura oglu (1876-1935), Ziya Gok Alp (1876-1924) and other prominent scientists. M.A. Rasulzade sympathized with the "Young Turks" organization, worked in the "Turkish Hearth" society and was one of the active writers of the "Turkish Country" magazine, which was published in November 1911. It's hisseveral articles were published in the pages of the magazine. Of these, the article "Iranian Turks" (1911, No. 4) is particularly interesting. In that article, the author provides Turkish readers with detailed information about the general geography and population of South Azerbaijan and writes: "Iravan, Ganja and Baku provinces are part of Azerbaijan in the Caucasus, which is under Russian control" (p. 108).
In books printed in Turkey at that time and in the press, as well as in the first volume of the famous Turkish encyclopedist Shamseddin Sami's "Gamusi-Alam" (Istanbul, 1889, p. 67), the term "Azerbaijan" meant only the area south of the Araz River. M.A. Rasulzade, much later, on October 13, 1918, in the "Azerbaijan" newspaper, published in Baku, also touches on this issue: "There is very little information about the Caucasus, especially Azerbaijan, in Istanbul, the center of Islam." While in Istanbul, M.A. Rasulzadeh translated the famous Islamic thinker Sheikh Jamaleddin Afgani's (1836-1897) "Vahdati jinsiye philosophiesi" ("Philosophy of National Unity") from Persian into Turkish, and wrote the work "Aci Bir Hayat" taken from the life of his native people ( this work was published in Baku in 1912). In 1913, after the amnesty for the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty, M.A. Rasulzade returned to his homeland. He joined the "Muslim democratic Musavat party", which was founded by ex-hummatists Taghi Nagiyev, Mohammad Amin Rasulzadeh and Abbasgulu Kazimzadeh in October 1911 under his instructions, and soon became its leader (Mohammed Amin Rasulzadeh. "Musavat" party structure, "Azerbaijan", Ankara, No. 15(167), 1966, pp. 12-18). During these years, M.A. Rasulzade continues his literary and journalistic activities. He publishes the article "New linguists and Turks", his short story "Bir Khan" about the life of Tabriz, and the article "Language is a public act" in "Shalala" magazine. In the last article, he raises the protection of the Azerbaijani language as the apple of his eye as the most important problem facing his people.
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Besides, that proletarian writer M .Translates a part of Gorky's work "Mother" into Azerbaijani and publishes it. It cannot be denied that this translation had a certain impact on Azerbaijani literature in those years. On September 16, 1914, the first issue of Diriliyin, a literary-social, economic, historical and political magazine published twice a month, was published under the editorship of poet, writer and journalist Alabbas Muznib (1882-1938). "What is life?" by M.A. Rasulzadeh. The main article of the magazine defined the ideological direction of the magazine and called our people to national awakening. He published "Azerbaijan rock" in the main articles under the title "National Vitality" printed on the pages of this magazine. Mirza Davud Huseynov writes in his book "Musavat party in the past and today", published in Tbilisi in 1927 in Russian, that until 1917 "Rasulzade did not have the idea of Azerbaijan as part of the Caucasus." At that time, only Iranian Azerbaijan was understood under the name of Azerbaijan. Of course, this is a misconception. As we have shown above, M.A. Rasulzade mentioned the fact that Azerbaijan is part of the Caucasus in the article "Iranian Turks" that he published in Istanbul in 1911 in the "Turk Yurdu" magazine. It is also necessary to show that even before M.A. Rasulzadeh, our enlightened intellectuals had the Azerbaijani spirit, even if it was in the form of beard. However, M.A. Rasulzade brought it fully to the political arena. From August 1915, M.A. Rasulzade published the newspaper "Achiq soz", which was actually the organ of the "Musavat" party, which operated secretly.
February bourgeois revolution in 1917 happened. The Great Russian Empire, which occupied the lands of small nations by force of arms and force, and became one-sixth of the world, was about to collapse... It seems that the wind of freedom had awakened the desire to create their own independent states in the nations that were groaning under colonialism. In March of that year a"Açık Soz" newspaper, the organ of the Musavat party, which started its activities, wrote: "Until now, we Muslims do not know our goal, our actions, do not know what freedom is, what is an organization, and do not have a national and political program that will be a framework for our common nation, and even if there is one, not even a thousand of us know about it. We were stuck in the middle without a compass in the storms of the terrible revolution, did not know where to go and how to move, and our societies also came to the strait like a group of divans ("Açığ söz" newspaper, No. 431, 1917). In the same year, under the leadership of Nasibbey Yusifbeyli (1881-1920), the Turkish Adam Central Party (Federalist - M. Aliyev) started its activities. The party held a big rally in the courtyard of the Shah Abbas Mosque in Ganja to introduce its program to the people. This rally was held under the slogans "Long live the democratic republic", "Long live the autonomy of Azerbaijan", "Long live the Central Party of Turkic Adam" ("Baku" newspaper, No. 80, April 12, 1917).
Caucasus in April 1917 in Baku A congress of Muslims was called. At the suggestion of M.A. Rasulzade, the Kurultay decided to organize Russia in a federative manner. The issue of "Azerbaijan rock" was raised again in this congress. In May of the same year, a congress of Russian Muslims was opened in the magnificent building donated to the Moscow Muslim Charity Society by Shamsi Asadullayev (1840-1913), one of the enlightened wealthy Azerbaijanis. M.A. Rasulzade made a report on establishing Russia in a federal way. The Kurultay accepted M.A. Rasulzade's proposal with a majority of votes on "establishing the future Russia in a federative manner, which will consist of several autonomies such as Turko-Tatar, Turkestan, Kazakhstan, Bashkirdistan and Azerbaijan-Dagestan". At that time, he published his "Community administration" and "Which government is useful for us?" published his books. M.A. Rasulzade's report at the Moscow Muslim Congress was published at the same time under the title "Two views on formal administration" together with Ahmed Salikov's speech. In the same month, "Brotherly Help" edited by M.A. Rasulzadehmagazine was published. Unfortunately, only one issue of the magazine was published. In the second half of June 1917, the "Muslim Democratic Musavat Party" and the "Turk Adam Central Party" merged, and the Turkish Adam Central Party began to act under the name "Musavat" ("Açığ soz" newspaper, No. 501, June 18, 1917 year). Its branches were organized not only in all regions of Azerbaijan, but also in the cities of Astrakhan and Stavropol of Russia, the capitals of Ukraine, Georgia and Armenia, Tashkent, the center of Turkestan, Tabriz, the center of South Azerbaijan, Rasht, the center of Gilan province of Iran, and Istanbul, the capital of Turkey. He wrote in response to those who tried to slander him as a bourgeois figure, that I could not even get a higher education because of poverty, I studied in Russia and Western Europe with my own money, and what can you call those who describe themselves as Bolsheviks today ("Açık soz" newspaper No. 549 , August 24, 1917). It should also be noted that his "MAR", "MAR-zade", "M.R-zade", "Haman", "Socialist", etc. Many articles with secret signatures such as Muhammad Amin Rasulzadeh was elected the chairman of the Central Committee at the first congress of the "Turkish People's Central Party" held in Baku from October 26 to 31, 1917 with the participation of 500 representatives. After this congress, the national movement of our people under the slogan "Autonomy to Azerbaijan" was started in Baku and in all regions of Azerbaijan.
National Azerbaijan movement in the history of our nation at that time entered as In the fall of 1917, M.A. Rasulzade was elected a deputy from Azerbaijan and Turkestan to the Russian parliament. On May 26, 1918, the Transcaucasian Seym was dissolved as a result of internal factional strife. On the 27th of the same month, the Azerbaijan National Council was formed, consisting of members of various parties included in the Muslim faction of the Seym. M.A. Rasulzadeh was elected the chairman of the national council with the majority of votes. On May 28, 1918, radio stations and newspapers of all countries announced the declaration of Azerbaijan's independence to the world. This meant that our nation conveys its existence, its existence as a nation, to all mankind, and it, like the nations living independently in the world, is free or independent within its ethnographic boundaries.has the right to a candle. The government of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was organized under the leadership of the neutral Fatalikhan Isgender oglu Khoyskin (1875-1920). Thus, the people of Azerbaijan, not only among the Turkic-speaking peoples, but also for the first time in the entire Islamic world, entered the republican system. On June 17, at the meeting of the National Council of Azerbaijan, M.A. Rasulzadeh said in his fiery speech: "Azerbaijani rock, newly born due to the influence of the World War and the Russian Revolution, and taking the first step into the politics of life, is experiencing important moments that cannot be covered. Will this new Turkish policy be able to grow beard and bulug and enter the ranks of nations as a resource, or will it remain in a nursing state like a skinny baby? Here is an issue that occupies all minds! It is a time when destiny creates a difficult, but equally difficult, honorable task and responsibility for those who take the nationality in their hands" ("Azerbaijan" newspaper, No. 41, 1918).
As we have seen, M.A. In his fiery speech, Rasulzade talks about the "Azerbaijan rock", which he raised in the pages of "Dirilik" magazine on the eve of the First World War, and which was later brought up again at the congress of Caucasian Muslims held in Baku in April 1917. It should also be noted that, unfortunately, in the works of a number of prominent revolutionaries, until May 28, 1918, that is, until Azerbaijan's independence was declared, there is not a single word about this land being called Azerbaijan, or about this nation being the Azerbaijani people. They forgot the main issue, that the Russian people were not a colonial people. They fought only to eliminate class conflicts. But Azerbaijan was a colony and even the name of the country was erased from the maps. In a colonial country, only the national liberation movement could be discussed. The people of Azerbaijan faced only the question of freeing themselves from colonialism and creating their own independent national state. Leading Azerbaijani intellectuals under the leadership of M.A. Rasulzade took on this difficult task at that time. At the ceremonial opening of the Parliament of Azerbaijan on December 7, 1918, M.A. Rasulzade said: "When we were defending the best issue for us - "Azerbaijani independence", weWe were also subjected to merciless criticism from the right and left.
We were told from the right that the slogan of Azerbaijaniness you are dividing Muslims, and by raising the flag of Turkism - may God destroy it - you are undermining the foundation of Islam. And from the left they reproached us that by demanding the autonomy of Azerbaijan, we are splitting the united democratic front. The "Musavat" party was the first to raise the flag of Azerbaijan's independence. Thus, there is no difference of opinion on the idea of Azerbaijan among Muslim parties. The idea of Azerbaijan has already been strengthened in the minds of the people... The flag that rises once will never come down again!" ("Azerbaijan" (Russian) newspaper, No. 59, December 13, 1918). The establishment of Baku State University is also connected with the name of M.A. Rasulzade. On this issue, he spoke several times in the Azerbaijani parliament and strongly demanded the opening of the university. Professor V. I. Razumovsky, who was the first rector of the university, wrote in his memorial essay "Foundation of the University in Baku" published in 1922: "Thanks to M.A. Rasulzade, with his power and enlightenment, the university was opened and closed in the Musavat party. their enemies were forced to submit to the decision of the party, we already had two parties on our side, Musavat and the Socialists, which ensured the majority in the parliament" (News of Baku State University, No. 2, 1922). In March 1920, published in Baku in Russian, we read in the "Calendar-address of the Republic of Azerbaijan for 1920" that M.A. Rasulzade taught "History of Ottoman Literature" at the Faculty of History and Philology. In connection with the anniversary of Azerbaijan's independence, M.A. Rasulzade's work entitled "Republic of Azerbaijan" was published in "Istiqlal" magazine, which was published in Baku in 1919 but was not distributed to a wide readership.
After the events of April 1920 M.A. Rasulzade was arrested in Lahij. The news of his capture was delivered to I.V. Stalin in the city of Vladikavkaz (now Ordzhonikidze) in early November of that year. Stalin came to Baku without informing anyone and instructed V. Pankratova, the head of the special department of the XII Army, on behalf of the People's Commissariat of the RSFSR, and he personally went to the prison and released M. A. Rasulzadeh. With this, I. V. Stalin fulfilled his historical duty of conscience to his former revolutionary friend M. A. Rasulzade, who saved him from death in 1905. He took M.A. Rasulzade with him to Moscow and appointed him to the position of press officer in the Commissariat of Nations of the RSFSR. M.A. Rasulzade also taught in Persian at the Moscow Institute of Oriental Studies (former Lazarev) under the Commissariat of Nations of the RSFSR. In the 1st issue of 1922, the "Yjdsq djcnjr" magazine, which is the organ of the Commissariat of Nations of the RSFSR, reported that in the 2nd issue, M.A. Rasulzade's article entitled "Communists of Ancient Iran" will be printed. This article about the Mazdakism movement has not been published. This can be explained by M.A. Rasulzade's emigration. The correct details of M.A. Rasulzade's departure abroad were reflected in the memorial of Abdulvahab Yurdsever (1898-1976), a famous Azerbaijani literary critic who died in Turkey, on the occasion of his death. He writes: One of the most important initiatives of the secret central committee of the "Musavat" party was to kidnap M.A. Rasulzadeh from Moscow. First, they contacted M.A. Rasulzadeh through a friend, and then by sending former member of Parliament, the late Rahimbey Vakilovu (1897-1937) and the head of the Baku soldier organization, our martyr comrade Dr. Dadash Hasanzadeh (1898-1926) to Moscow with some money. . Mammad Amin Rasulzadeh was offered to go to Leningrad in the name of scientific research. He was abducted from there to Finland with the help of one of the late Tatar intellectuals Musa Jarurullah Bigiyev (1875-1949) and by sailing across the Gulf of Finland by boat ("Azerbaijan" magazine, Ankara, No. 3, 1955). Later tragic events in the USSR showed that this was the only correct way. No doubt, M.A. Rasulzade would not survive after 1925. Thus, the emigration period of M.A. Rasulzade begins. In 1928, M.A. Rasulzade's books "The past, formation and current situation of the Republic of Azerbaijan", "The warrior of our century", "Ideology of independence and youth" were published in Istanbul. Since 1923, under his editorship, the "New Caucasus" magazine has been published in Istanbul. In 1928, M.A. Rasulzade published works such as "The Collapse of Revolutionary Socialism and the Future of Democracy", "Nation and Bolshevism" and "Caucasian Turks" in Istanbul. In the same year, under his editorship, "Azeri Turku" (1928-1931), and then "Odlu Yurd" (1929-1930) magazines and the weekly "Bildiriş" (1929-1931) newspaper were also published. In 1930, M.A. Rasulzade's books "Azerbaijan and its independence" in French and "Panturanism in connection with the Caucasian problem" were published in Paris. Since 1931, M.A. Rasulzade's emigration period continues in European countries. The newspaper "Istiqlal" (1932-1934) and the magazine "Qurtuluş" (1934-1938) were published in Berlin under his editorship.
In 1933 AD Rasulzade's book "Some Notes on the Republic of Azerbaijan" published in Berlin is also of great interest. M.A. Rasulzadeh was also a prominent literary critic, his article "Contemporary Azerbaijani Literature" was published in Berlin in 1936. It is impossible not to mention the names of the books "Azerbaijani Problem" in German in Belin in 1938 and "Azerbaijan's Freedom War" in Polish in 1939 in Warsaw. He worked as a consultant in the Polish government from 1938, and later, from 1940, he lived in Romania. His article titled "Azerbaijani dialect" was published in the 1st volume of "Islam-Turkish enlopedia" published in Istanbul in 1943. In 1949, M.A. Rasulzade, who moved to Ankara in 1947, published the book "Cultural highlights of Azerbaijan". His books "Contemporary Azerbaijani literature" (1950) and "Contemporary Azerbaijani history" (1951) show that M.A. Rasulzade worked productively in those years. In 1951, he brought a lot of innovations to the world nizami studies by publishing his monograph entitled "Azerbaijani Poet Nizami" in Ankara.
In the same year, M.A. Rasulzadeh The article "Republic of Azerbaijan" was published in the 7th volume of the 3rd issue of 1951 of the "Ukraine" collection published in English in New York. He also wrote an article on the history of the establishment of the Musavat party and the formation of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in the "British Enlopedia" published in English in London. M.A. Rasulzadeh wrote many of the articles about Azerbaijan in the "Turkish Enlopedia" published in Turkey after the Second World War. During the time he lived in Ankara, he was a member of the "Turkish History Institution" and "Turkclosely cooperated with the language institution. If we add here a series of articles about the history and literature of our nation in the "Azerbaijan" magazine published in Ankara since 1952, the idea of M.A. Rasulzade's amazing creativity becomes clearer. Until the Second World War, he published his articles in the magazines "Caucasus" (1932-1938) published in Russian in Paris and "Prometheus" (1928-1939) published in French. From the open and secret signatures he used after 1920, "Mohammed Amin Rasulzade", "Yalvac oglu", "Mohammed Amin", "M. Alif Rasulzade", etc. can be noted. On March 6, 1955, at ten minutes to eleven at night, Muhammad Amin, who was lying in the clinic of the Faculty of Medicine of Ankara University, passed away saying "Azerbaijan... Azerbaijan... Azerbaijan..." three times. Ankara radio reported with regret that the former chairman of the Azerbaijan National Council M.A. Rasulzade passed away on March 7 at 22:45.
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