Mugham — the main genre of classical folk music of Azerbaijan. The word Mugham is used in the Iranian-Arabic-Turkish language. originated from the word "maqam". The word "maqam" means the fret on stringed instruments. Each mugham is named so because the main (liquid) note is on one fret of the instrument. Until about the 14th century, there was a single music genre of the Middle Eastern peoples, but due to the social and political changes that took place later, this single music genre was divided according to the peoples. Classical eastern mugham consisted of 12 main mughams and 6 avazat. The main mughams were: Ushshag, Nava, Buselik, Rast, Arag, Isfahan, Zirafkend, Buzurk, Zangula, Rahavi, Huseyni and Hejaz, and the avazats consisted of Shahnaz, Maya, Selmak, Nowruz, Kardaniya, Guvasht.< img src="http://web.archive.org/web/20210128003312im_/https://forgenc.net/uploads/posts/2013-01/thumbs/1358619665_102827ce88.png" alt="Azerbaijani values part 2" title= "Azerbaijani values part 2">
Mugham in Azerbaijan < /span> The peoples of the Near and Middle East have spiritual and material wealth that has been related for centuries. In the musical culture of the Eastern peoples, common aspects are more clearly manifested. because this culture was formed on the basis of the process of communication of various forms and shades of the population of a large region. It is for this reason that they have many important oriental features. Transcaucasia, including Azerbaijan, from ancient times Near and The region connecting the countries of the Middle Eastna is included. It goes without saying that despite the fact that the permanent relations between the countries of this region have created many common aspects in their culture and lifestyle, each nation's culture has preserved its own characteristics. In this sense, the culture and art of the people of Azerbaijan with ancient traditions is very characteristic. Mugham, an ancient heritage of the Azerbaijani people, has long been popular among the masses. has become common property. However, the artistic problems related to the centuries-old mugham art, including the historical development and evolution of the mugham, its composition - structure, characteristics, and national uniqueness, have not been properly investigated until now. The widely developed art of our musical heritage is currently formed as the main field of national musical-poetic art in three types: Mugham tables; Small volume mugams; Percussive mughams. There are 7 main and 3 auxiliary mughams in Azerbaijan. The main mughams are "Rast", "Shur", "Segah", "chahargah", "Bayati-Shiraz", "Shustar" and "Humayun", and the auxiliary mughams are "Shahnaz", "Saranj" and "2nd type chahargah". is Creators of classy oriental mugham and basic theory about mugham Abu Nasr Farabi, Abu Ali ibn Sina, Alkindi, Abdulgadir Maragayi, Safiyyeddin Urmavi and others were opinions. Azerbaijani composer, outstanding representative of Azerbaijani professional music, Uzeyir Hajibeyov is known as one of the main thinkers of Eastern music and mugham theory in the 20th century.
The composer of Mugham is the people themselves > Unlike a written piece of music, a mugham compositions is not composed by an individual, it is created according to a certain existing verbal scheme. In fact, mugham exists as an abstract idea, it does not exist until it is performed. When the performer plays the mugham, it kind of breathes into it. Mugham consists of melodies composed by someone at some point. But in general, mugham art is anonymous. As in the past, creatively gifted performers also create individual melodies, mostly in categories and colors, but the name of the artist who composed them remains generally unknown to the general public. Thus, in the eyes of the people, the author of these weathers is not different individuals, but the people themselves.